Flavorful and delicious rye bread prepared traditionally is a real treasure trove full of the gifts of the earth.
Rye bread is a food product obtained by baking dough, the main ingredient of which is rye flour, and a special sourdough is used as baking leaven.
So first, what is rye?
Rye is the most popular cereal after wheat in many countries of the world.
Where rye first appeared and where and by whom it was first cultivated, remains a question for scientists. A number of hypotheses suggest that the forerunner of rye was a crop called “Secale Montanum Guss”, which is widespread in Southern Europe and Asia. Other theories refute this idea.re
Anyway, it is known for certain that rye-related crops were grown by the ancient Egyptians. By the X-XII centuries, rye was already grown in the fields of India, Asia, the Middle East and Europe.
Rye has been considered a draw in wheat fields, and farmers tried to get rid of it in every possible way. Now, thanks to the similarity of rye with drawks, in Southwest Asia, it is grown even in larger volumes than wheat. The reason is simple: wheat is a more fastidious crop, and rye grows much better in mountainous conditions.
The Health Benefits of Rye Bread
Improves the functioning of the stomach. Rye bread does not cause heartburn and perfectly normalizes the digestive tract.
Gives a feeling of fullness. Rye fibers, binding water in the stomach, swell and give a feeling of satiety for a long time.
Strengthens teeth and gums. Rye bread fibers strengthen teeth and gums and help keep them healthy.
Regulates blood sugar levels. Sugar obtained by the body from rye bread is absorbed slowly, evenly and always remains normal, without causing sharp increases.
Energizes. Rye bread contains a complex of carbohydrates that increases the energy of your body and gives strength during physical and mental exertion. Rye bread is a real cocktail of strength, health and energy.
Prevents type 2 diabetes. The fiber of rye bread reduces the body’s need for insulin, since the substances contained in it at the hormonal level affect the action of the pancreas, forcing it to produce insulin.
Reduces cholesterol. The fiber contained in rye bread removes excess ballast from the body, takes excess fat from food and lowers cholesterol.
Regulates the work of the intestine. Rye bread improves intestinal motility and removes harmful substances from the body: salt. heavy metals, radioactive substances, residues of products of biological origin.
Reduces the risk of cancer. The plant fibers contained in rye grain affect the activity of the intestine at a hormonal level, reducing the risk of bowel cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer.
Protects against heart diseases. Regular consumption of rye and whole-grain bread – bread with a high fiber content – reduces the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.
Helps to control weight. In recent years, fans of various diets have been trying not to eat bread at all. And completely in vain! High-quality rye bread helps to reduce weight and not gain it back. After all, the fiber contained in rye bread does not contain calories.
Rye Bread and Colon Cancer
The coarse fibers contained in the product normalize the work of the intestines and the digestive system as a whole. They reduce the level of inflammation, reduce glucose absorption, and promote the excretion of cholesterol. Fiber, like a brush, cleans pathogenic cells leading to the formation of polyps and tumors from the digestive system.
Rye bread is rich in selenium, which increases the anti-cancer activity of the product.
Rye Bread and Heart Disease
Rye bread is a friend of our heart because it helps to balance the cholesterol content in the body, thus reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The minerals contained in rye bread stimulate brain activity and strengthen muscles. In addition, rye bread contains various B vitamins that are useful for the skin, nails and the human nervous system.
Possible Downsides of Rye Bread
But there is nothing perfect on the planet. Even rye bread, actively promoted by supporters of a healthy lifestyle, also has its downsides.
For example, it is more acidic than wheat. This gives it resistance against the action of mold. That is why the black humpback is popular as a universal food supply for seafarers. On the other hand, it becomes an undesirable food for those who suffer from intestinal diseases – ulcers, high acidity, colic.
Those vitamins and nutrients that are part of black bread are absorbed slightly worse than they are in wheat. As a result, only in a well-planned diet, a rye loaf will be a better source of vitamins than a white one.
If the body has an individual gluten intolerance, this product should not be consumed.
And the caloric content of rye bread, although less than that of white bread, is still high. And therefore, when choosing bread in the store, always think about how much of this product in the diet is optimally possible for you.
There are different varieties of rye flour:
- Dark rye flour is flour ground with grain shells. It tends to be rough and shortcrust, absorbs quite a lot of water.
- Rye flour is basically a whole grain of rye, finely ground.
- Medium rye flour — when some (but not all) germs and brans have been removed.
- Light or white rye flour is the equivalent of universal wheat flour. Bran and germs were mostly, sometimes completely, removed.
- There is a much wider range of rye flour, including various percentages of bran and germs.
Also, there are different varieties of bread depending on the ingredients that are used.
- Mixed wheat or wheat-rye bread
Wheat flour is used for the preparation of wheat-rye bread – wheat flour is at least 51% of the total amount of flour used. These bread products are larger in volume and more porous and soft than rye bread. The greater the amount of wheat flour used, the more delicate and neutral is the taste and aroma of bread.
Consumers have come to love the bread of this group with a small addition of various seeds – caraway, sunflower seeds, flax, pumpkin or a mixture of them, because the bread is porous and light, in turn, the added seeds enrich the taste. The shelf life of bread is 3 – 5 days.
- Rye bread
Rye bread is baked from coarse and peeled rye flour, it has a dark and relatively thick crust.. Rye bread is characterized by a pronounced aroma and sour taste. It depends on the technology of making rye bread, in which the sourdough plays an important role. Coarse rye bread is kept fresh for a long time, it is rich in fiber, vitamins and minerals. The shelf life of bread is 5-10 days and even more.
- Rye-wheat bread
In the composition of rye-wheat bread, most of the total amount of flour should be rye flour, at least 51%, both yeast and sourdough are used as a leaven. Rye flour and sourdough provide a pronounced pleasant taste, a longer storage time, and wheat flour provides a porous, elastic pulp and bread volume.
If a larger amount of rye flour is used in the manufacture of rye-wheat bread, the resulting bread is more fragrant and sour. The shelf life of bread is 4 – 7 days.
Nutritional value and vitamin composition of rye bread
The content in 100 g of the product
- Energy value 259 kcal
- Proteins 8.5 g
- Fats 3.3 g
- Inorganic substances 2.5 g
- Carbohydrates 48.3 g
- Fiber 5.8 g
- Sugar 3.85 g
- Calcium, Ca 73 mg
- Iron, Fe 2.83 mg
- Magnesium, Mg 40 mg
- Phosphorus, P 125 mg
- Potassium, K 166 mg
- Sodium, Na 603 mg
- Zinc, Zn 1.14 mg
- Copper, Cu 0.186 mg
- Manganese, Mn 0.824 mg
- Selenium, Se 30.9 mcg
- Fluorine, F 51 mcg
- Vitamin C 0.4 mg
- Thiamine 0.434 mg
- Riboflavin 0.335 mg
- Nicotinic acid 3.805 mg
- Pantothenic acid 0.44 mg
- Vitamin B-6 0.075 mg
- Folate, total 110 mcg
- Folic acid 59 mcg
- Folic acid, food grade 51 mcg
- Folic acid, DFE 151 mcg
- Choline, total 14.6 mg
- Carotene, beta- 4 mcg
- Cryptoxanthin, beta 1 mcg
- Vitamin A, IU 7 IU
- Lutein + zeaxanthin 54 mcg
- Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 0.33 mg
- Vitamin K (phylloquinone) 1.2 mcg
- Saturated fat 0.626 g
- Monounsaturated fat 1,311 g
- Polyunsaturated fat 0.799 g
- Tryptophan 0.096 g
- Threonine 0,255 g
- Isoleucine 0.319 g
- Leucine 0.579 g
- Lysine 0,233 g
- Methionine 0.139 g
- Cystine 0.173 g
- Phenylalanine 0.411 g
- Tyrosine 0,213 g
- Valine 0.379 g
- Arginine 0.325 g
- Histidine 0.182 g
- Alanine 0,299 g
- Aspartic acid 0.442 g
- Glutamic acid 2,603 g
- Glycine 0.302 g
- Proline 0.909 g
- Serine 0.417 g
The main share falls on carbohydrates, which are represented by starch, fiber (dietary fiber), mono- and disaccharides (sucrose, glucose, etc.). Among vitamins, fat-soluble vitamin E predominates.
The mineral composition of rye bread is also diverse. It has such elements necessary for the body as sodium, potassium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, iron, iodine, selenium, sulfur, manganese and others. The caloric content of 100 g of the product is 259 kcal.
The Bottom Line
When making up a diet, do not forget about the beneficial properties of rye bread, which is optimally combined with meat, vegetable, fish dishes and snacks, gives a feeling of satiety and fullness of taste sensations, and also provides the body with a wide range of biologically active substances, minerals and vitamins.
How to store rye bread
- Rye bread stays soft and fragrant for a long time if wrapped with a linen cloth (if there is no such fabric, then a regular waffle towel will do);
- Rye black bread will retain its taste characteristics better if wrapped in white paper (parchment or any kind of paper);
- You can use a plastic bag to keep rye bread (several holes must be made in the bag to exclude the appearance of condensation);
- Metal bread boxes keep bread fresh for a longer time (a bread box is considered the most correct way to store bakery products and even if it is made of plastic or wood, in any case, it will cope with its task much better than a plastic bag, container or shelf in the cupboard);
- Rye and white bread cannot be stored in the same bag or near each other in an open form (white bread will significantly shorten the shelf life of rye);
- Rye bread can be kept in the refrigerator (in this case, the loaf must be wrapped in a plastic bag with holes, paper or cloth);
- Rye bread can even be frozen (should be wrapped in foil);
- Only fresh rye bread can be placed in the refrigerator or freezer (spoiled bread will shorten the shelf life of other food products).